Impressive progress has been made during the last two decades in developing objective, reliable and reproducible test methodologies for measuring brain response to olfactive stimuli. Major contributions have come from renowned researchers in the USA, Europe and Japan. Work conducted by Lorig and his team at Washington and Lee University, USA, Kobal and others at the University of Erlangen, Germany and Torii as well as Saito in Japan can be considered as ground breaking achievements.
In addition R&D efforts in many major fragrance companies were directed at research on fragrance benefits using modern instrumentation in the field of Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These findings are often treated as trade secrets or are protected through patents. Also worth noting is the support and contribution made by Sense of Smell Institute (Fragrance foundation) in encouraging younger researchers to get involved in olfactory research using robust methodologies for scientific validation.